For example, the “obligation” stated in a bid bond is that the principal will honor its bid; the “obligation” in a performance bond is that the principal will complete the project; and the “obligation” in a payment bond is that the principal will properly pay subcontractors and suppliers. Bonds frequently state, as a “condition,” that if the principal fully performs the stated obligation, then the bond is void; otherwise the bond remains in full force and effect.
If the principal fails to perform the obligation stated in the bond, both the principal and the surety are liable on the bond, and their liability is “joint and several.” That is, either the principal or surety or both may be sued on the bond, and the entire liability may be collected from either the principal or the surety. The amount in which a bond is issued is the “penal sum,” or the “penalty amount,” of the bond. Except in a very limited set of circumstances, the penal sum or penalty amount is the upward limit of liability on the bond.
The person or firm to whom the principal and surety owe their obligation is called the “obligee.” On bid bonds, performance bonds, and payment bonds, the obligee is usually the owner. Where a subcontractor furnishes a bond, however, the obligee may be the owner or the general contractor or both. The people or firms who are entitled to sue on a bond, sometimes called “beneficiaries” of the bond, are usually defined in the language of the bond or in those state and federal statutes that require bonds on public projects.
A bid bond guarantees the owner that the principal will honor its bid and will sign all contract documents if awarded the contract. The owner is the obligee and may sue the principal and the surety to enforce the bond. If the principal refuses to honor its bid, the principal and surety are liable on the bond for any additional costs the owner incurs in reletting the contract. This usually is the difference in dollar amount between the low bid and the second low bid. The penal sum of a bid bond often is ten to twenty percent of the bid amount.
A performance bond guarantees the owner that the principal will complete the contract according to its terms including price and time. The owner is the obligee of a performance bond, and may sue the principal and the surety on the bond. If the principal defaults, or is terminated for default by the owner, the owner may call upon the surety to complete the contract. Many performance bonds give the surety three choices: completing the contract itself through a completion contractor (taking up the contract); selecting a new contractor to contract directly with the owner; or allowing the owner to complete the work with the surety paying the costs. The penal sum of the performance bond usually is the amount of the prime construction contract, and often is increased when change orders are issued. The penal sum in the bond usually is the upward limit of liability on a performance bond. However, if the surety chooses to complete the work itself through a completing contractor to take up the contract then the penal sum in the bond may not be the limit of its liability. The surety may take the same risk as a contractor in performing the contract.
A payment bond guarantees the owner that subcontractors and suppliers will be paid the monies that they are due from the principal. The owner is the obligee; the “beneficiaries” of the bond are the subcontractors and suppliers. Both the obligee and the beneficiaries may sue on the bond. An owner benefits indirectly from a payment bond in that the subcontractors and suppliers are assured of payment and will continue performance. On a private project, the owner may also benefit by providing subcontractors and suppliers a substitute to mechanics’ liens. If the principal fails to pay the subcontractors or suppliers, they may collect from the principal or surety under the payment bond, up to the penal sum of the bond. Payments under the bond will deplete the penal sum. The penal sum in a payment bond is often less than the total amount of the prime contract, and is intended to cover anticipated subcontractor and supplier costs.
In addition to these three important bonds, SBP provides the following bonds for the construction industry:
Supply Bond: this makes sure that suppliers provide materials, equipment and/or supplies as defined in purchase orders.
Maintenance Bond: is a written guarantee against defective materials and workmanship for a specific time period following a project’s completion.
Subdivision Bond: is used by contractors to build and/or renovate public structures within subdivisions.
Site Improvement Bond: guarantees the completion of certain improvements made to projects. It is precisely used for renovation projects that update older structures or other existing properties.
License & Permit Bond: required by a municipality or other public body as a condition to granting a license or permit to engage in a specified activity, this bond guarantees that the party seeking the license or permit (the obligor) will comply with applicable laws or regulations. These bonds can also be structured to provide indemnity guarantees to third parties who sustain injury or damage as a result of the obligor’s activities as described in the license or permit when such a guarantee is required. For example, businesses that hang signs over public sidewalks may be required to provide indemnity guarantees for injuries to pedestrians.
Lien Bond: a Mechanics Lien Release Surety Bond is a surety bond required of owners in certain construction projects. A lien is typically filed by a contractor on the owner’s property when they are in dispute with the owner over payment for services provided. The lien is a means by which the contractor seeks to take the property of the owner by force of law and eventually foreclose it in order to secure the value of the services or materials that they have added to the property. The release of lien bond allows the owner to discharge the mechanic’s lien and returns the legal right to sell or deal with the property to the owner. The bond guarantees the contractor who placed the lien any payment that is still due to them with interest and cost should they win the case. These are also known as Release of Lien Surety Bonds.
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